SS ‘United States’

Images of Steamship SS ‘United States’

The steamship SS ‘United States’ was launched in 1952 in an era of immense optimism after the end of the World War II, when strong rebuilding of the world was taking place. The age of the jet engine was several decades away and the fastest and most glamorous way to cross the Atlantic Ocean was via a steamship liner. Many steamship companies were involved in the trade of bringing immigrants to the US form Europe, but mainly British steamship companies – as one may had expected – were ruling the waves of the Atlantic Ocean and many more seas, with fast, glamorous vessels that would set records for size, speed, luxury and innovation.

The steamship SS ‘United States’ had been the answer of a fast growing country looking to establish its dominance in the world after the World War II; the US had decisively tipped the outcome of WWII, and as a result, its place at the top of the table and its leadership of the world came to be expected.

The story of the steamship SS ‘United States’ is the story of the United Sates coming to prominence on the world scene; from the ‘gestation’ of the design to the time, efforts, dedication and perseverance to be built the vessel one can find a reflection of the history of the United States itself.

The vessel had been the fascination – and some would say the obsession – of one single-minded man, William Francis Gibbs. He started designing the vessel almost two decades before her launch, taking into consideration the latest advances of naval architecture and marine engineering, incorporating advanced standards of safety and luxury, with an eye always to smash the speed record typically set by the British liner vessels. For many reasons, mostly financials and the war circumstances, the vessel could not be built until two decades later. All this time, Mr William Francis Gibbs, brightly kept the hope of the ship alive and kept constantly upgrading and updating the design to incorporate new advancement and ideas.

After the end of World War II, commercial considerations for passengers crossing the Atlantic became more favorable. At the same time, the Federal Maritime Commission (FMC) under President Franklin D Roosevelt – probably, the most merchant-marine-ambitious president in the USA history – was aware that should any military flare-ups after WWII should take place in Korea, etc, there would be need to transfer troops fast worldwide; thus, the need of a ‘part time’ / ‘stand by’ fast ship or fleet of ships to position troops. Navigating the bureaucracy in Washington DC was almost as challenging as delivering this miracle of a vessel for Mr Gibbs: 250,000 shaft horsepower, registered 36 knot speed and taking the Blue Riband from RMS ‘Queen Mary’ (actual top speed has been unknown for security reasons, rumored to be more than 45 knots), 4,000-berths, one of the first indoor swimming pools with real sand, onboard theater and stage, tennis court, twenty-two decks (as a comparison MV ‘Norwegian Breakaway’ – one of today’s biggest cruiseships has ‘only’ eighteen decks), and other amenities. In order for the vessel to be fire-proof, the only piece of wood onboard was the butcher’s block, as even Steinway had to design a special piano for the ship made of aluminum. The vessel cost $78 mil at the time (almost $700 mil in today’s purchasing power), of which 50% was contributed by the US government.

The vessel presently is docked at Pier 82 in Philadelphia waiting for the kindness of strangers from a different era in order to see another day. There have been efforts to save the vessel and convert her to a museum ship or other development that would keep her afloat and preserved for future generations. There have been many promising starts but also heart-breaks over the years… It costs $60,000 per month just to maintain the vessel at her present condition, just for docking and insurance. The vessel is under the management of the SS United States Conservancy, and the non-for-profit foundation faces a drop-dead deadline by the end of this month to find the budget or solution for the vessel; otherwise, the vessel SS ‘United States’ would have the inglorious end of many a ship, the blow torch.

For a vessel so closely associated with the aspiration and dreams of the United States to rule the waves of the world, a vessel so closely associated with the ascend of the United States to the world scene after WWII, it will be a shame for this vessel to be scrapped.

The passage of time is a brutal reminder that everything has an expiration date on our planet, especially for floating structures, but some of such floating structures are just too close to our history, to our tradition, to the baton we eventually will pass to the future generations…

Please consider donating for this worthy cause at the website of the SS United States Conservancy website.

Images of the SS ‘United States’ were taken in March 2014 when we had the fortunate opportunity to visit the vessel.

Additional information about the history of the vessel and images can be found at our previous post.


 

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SS ‘United States’ – Portside hull view, forward. Image credit: Karatzas Photographie Maritime

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SS ‘United States’ – Portside view, aft. Image credit: Karatzas Photographie Maritime

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SS ‘United States’ – View of the stern, vessel home-ported in New York, a rather rare view these days. Image credit: Karatzas Photographie Maritime

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SS ‘United States’ – View of the stern, vessel home-ported in New York, a rather rare view these days. Image credit: Karatzas Photographie Maritime

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SS ‘United States’ – Portside view of the bow. Image credit: Karatzas Photographie Maritime

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SS ‘United States’ – Portside vide of the hull, looking aft. Image credit: Karatzas Photographie Maritime

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SS ‘United States’ – Portside partial view of a sharp bow. Image credit: Karatzas Photographie Maritime

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SS ‘United States’ – a glorious name that may be a life saver… Image credit: Karatzas Photographie Maritime

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SS ‘United States’ – View of the stern, partial. Image credit: Karatzas Photographie Maritime

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SS ‘United States’ – View of the stern, vessel home-ported in New York, a rather rare view these days. Image credit: Karatzas Photographie Maritime

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SS ‘United States’ – View of the bridge today from the bow. Image credit: Karatzas Photographie Maritime

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SS ‘United States’ – Where first class staterooms used to be… Image credit: Karatzas Photographie Maritime

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SS ‘United States’ – the look-out tower, forward of the fore funnel. Image credit: Karatzas Photographie Maritime

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SS ‘United States’ – Look-out tower. Image credit: Karatzas Photographie Maritime

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SS ‘United States’ – A ship with a glorious pedigree. Image credit: Karatzas Photographie Maritime

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SS ‘United States’ – Looking aft. Image credit: Karatzas Photographie Maritime

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SS ‘United States’ – Look-out tower and fore funnel. Image credit: Karatzas Photographie Maritime

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SS ‘United States’ – Two faded funnels… Image credit: Karatzas Photographie Maritime

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SS ‘United States’ – Look-out and communications tower. Image credit: Karatzas Photographie Maritime

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SS ‘United States’ – Looking aft. Image credit: Karatzas Photographie Maritime

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SS ‘United States’ – Looking aft. Image credit: Karatzas Photographie Maritime

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SS ‘United States’ – Looking fore. Image credit: Karatzas Photographie Maritime

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SS ‘United States’ – Looking fore with view of the funnels and the spare propeller onboard. Image credit: Karatzas Photographie Maritime

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SS ‘United States’ – Looking fore, where tennis court used to be. Image credit: Karatzas Photographie Maritime

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SS ‘United States’ – where tennis court used to be. Image credit: Karatzas Photographie Maritime


© 2013 – present Basil M Karatzas & Karatzas Marine Advisors & Co.  All Rights Reserved.

IMPORTANT DISCLAIMERS:  Vessel description is provided in good faith and is believed to be correct and accurate but no assurances, warranties or representations are made herewith. Vessel description is provided for entertainment  purposes only. We have no responsibility whatsoever for any errors / omissions in vessel description.

Access to this blog signifies the reader’s irrevocable acceptance of this disclaimer. No part of this blog can be reproduced by any means and under any circumstances, whatsoever, in whole or in part, without proper attribution or the consent of the copyright and trademark holders of this website. Whilst every effort has been made to ensure that information herewithin has been received from sources believed to be reliable and such information is believed to be accurate at the time of publishing, no warranties or assurances whatsoever are made in reference to accuracy or completeness of said information, and no liability whatsoever will be accepted for taking or failing to take any action upon any information contained in any part of this website.  Thank you for the consideration.

Images posted on this blog are typically minimally processed gpeg images of lower resolution. Original images are typically shot in RAW format, which can be provided upon special request.

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USS „Texas” (BB-35)

Images of historic military vessel Battleship USS ‘Texas’, the only remaining military vessel having seeing action in both World War I and World War II, presently docked in LaPorte, TX, active as museum ship while undergoing thorough maintenance. Amazing that ships hold such a strong link to the past!

Full Steam Ahead! The Maritime Blog

Images of historic Battleship USS „Texas” (BB-35)

Present Location:
3523 Independence Parkway South
LaPorte, TX 77571

Name: USS Texas
Namesake: State of Texas
Ordered: 24 June 1910
Builder: Newport News Shipbuilding Company
Cost: $5,830,000
Laid down: 17 April 1911
Launched: 18 May 1912
Sponsored by: Claudia Lyon
Commissioned: 12 March 1914
Decommissioned: 21 April 1948
Struck: 30 April 1948
Nickname: Big T, Old T
Honors and
awards:
5 Battle Stars
Status: Museum ship at San Jacinto State Park

According to Wikipedia, USS „Texas” (BB-35) is a New York-class battleship launched on 18 May 1912 and commissioned on 12 March 1914.

Soon after her commissioning, USS „Texas” saw action in Mexican waters following the “Tampico Incident” and made numerous sorties into the North Sea during World War I. When the United States formally entered World War II in 1941, USS „Texas” escorted war convoys across the Atlantic, and later shelled Axis-held…

View original post 625 more words

SS ‘United States’

She was built as an unsinkable ship, a claim allegedly attributed to Bruce Ismay, the managing partner of the White Star Line, the direct shipowning company of the famous RMS Titanic. The year was 1912, and liner companies were in fierce competition with each other for the Transatlantic passenger trade. Fate would not be kind to Ismay and RMS Titanic as both soon floundered spectacularly, both literally and metaphorically.

Four decades later, a longer, beamier, stronger, more powerful passenger vessel would be built in the US at the Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Company in Virginia for the same trade. Like RMS Titanic, her maiden voyage made great news as well at the time as she crossed eastbound the Atlantic Ocean in record time of about three days and eleven hours. Soon thereafter, she pulverized the record for the more challenging westbound leg of the Transatlantic trip with a record of about three days and twelve hours. She earned the Blue Riband, the trophy for the fastest average cruising speed on both directions of the round Transatlantic voyage, a record that she still holds today, six decades later. Now, an arthritic, gracious, old lady past her prime and with the memory token of the trophy misplaced somewhere in the attic that today’s grandchildren of history would barely care getting bothered about. The name of the distinguished old lady is SS United States and her figurative attic is Pier 82 on the Delaware River in Philadelphia.

Her speed may have placed her name on the record books, but she has been a remarkable ship in more ways than one. With 990 ft length overall, she was 110 ft longer than RMS Titanicand well within comparison to the 1,000-ft length commanded by today’s supertankers and monster containerships. Despite her length, her beam was kept narrow at 101 ft so that she could pass gracefully through the Panama Canal if her voyage called for it. Her steam turbines were capable of producing 248,000 shaft horsepower (SHP) – more than twice the power of today’s either typical supertanker or a two-engined Boeing 777 airplane. She brought the Blue Riband to American shores from Queen Mary by sailing as fast as almost 36 knots (approximately41 mph), which is believed to be even today the fastest crossing of the Atlantic Ocean in both directions by a standard mono-hull, merchant vessel. Last decade, when the world economies were growing robustly and just in time inventory was in vogue, containerships – the fastest commercial vessels these days – were crossing the oceans at twenty-four knots maximum speed, while in today’s anemic economic environment and high bunkering fuel cost, the fastest containeships typically slow steam at sixteen knots. Cruiseships are capable of achieving close to thirty knots, but usually barely sail above twenty knots in order to economize on fuel expense. Being built after RMS Titanic’s tragedy, the International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) in 1914, and after her sistership SS Olympia, SS United States was an embodiment to prevention and safety in the event of unforeseen events.

The vessel was launched in 1952 at a contract price of $78 million, or approximately $690 million in today’s purchasing power. With 4,060 berths, her contract price was 50% more expensive than today’s cruiseships (though she was a different, now extinct ‘asset class’, an ‘ocean liner’); efficiencies in shipbuilding can attribute to savings, but SS United States was distinctly a luxury vessel with half of her passengers traveling in first class (versus one-third of RMS Titanic) and she had one crew member for every two passengers (versus one crew member for every three passengers on RMS Titanic.) The high cost of the vessel was also partially attributed to increased specifications for military use, as less than a decade after World War II and with Cold War just settling in when she was built, the US government wanted access to passenger vessels in order to move rapidly military troops worldwide in case of military action. Although the vessel could accommodate up to three thousand passengers on a commercial voyage, five times as many (15,000) soldiers would be transported on one of the vessel’s military trips. As such, the vessel’s hull was built with re-enforced steel in order to sustain hostile fire and she was heavily compartmentalized with water-tight doors and bulkheads in order to prevent heavy flooding. For the right of having access to the vessel in time of emergency, the US Navy paid $50 million of the contract price, while $28 million was paid by her official shipowner and manager, the now defunct United States Lines (signage of the company can be seen today along the Chelsea Piers on the Hudson River in Manhattan.)

There were twenty-two decks and plentiful luxurious common areas for the enjoyment of her privileged passengers, amenities such as indoor and outdoor promenades and sundecks, huge library with high ceilings and large, sunny windows in the front of the ship, ball room and dance floor with a dome structure, theater stage, tennis court, an elevator to the the master staircase, a luxurious bar opening to the sun deck in the rear of the vessel, a swimming pool complete with sand around it for the passenger’s enjoyment. All such luxury had to be dispensed without the presence of wood onboard the vessel in order to avoid fires; extensive use of aluminum substituted for wood, and Steinway himself had to demonstrate that the specially made piano for the ship was fire proof indeed and could actually cannot be set on fire (the piano and the butcher’s block were the only two wooden pieces ever allowed onboard.)

Two 65-ft tall, brilliantly red-painted funnels with small wings and gently leaning backwards, with a white stripe on top in parallel to a white stripe along the upper end of a black-painted hull, and almost a vertically raked bow and round ‘spoon shaped’ stern typical for ocean liners of that age, SS United States was cutting a graceful figure over the water and on the horizon and her New York City port calls have been immortalized on numerous post cards. Even today, the fainted red color of the two funnels is an eye-catcher when one is crossing the bridge approaching Philadelphia and from afar form the Seaport up the Delaware River; almost like two faint, red candle-flames over the horizon, two candle flames of the memory and glory, a prayer that the wind of modern times will not peel off the colorful existence altogether.

In her 800 Transatlantic crossings over her seventeen year career ending in 1969 (about one crossing per week), notable politicians and celebrities enjoyed unparalleled luxury in her fast and graceful sliding over the ocean; Marlon Brando, Coco Chanel, Sean Connery, Gary Cooper, Walter Cronkite, Salvador Dali, Walt Disney, Duke Ellington, Judy Garland, Cary Grant, Charlton Heston, Bob Hope, Marilyn Monroe, Prince Rainier and Grace Kelly, Elizabeth Taylor, John Wayne, and the Duke and Duchess of Windsor are known to travelled with her. Four U.S. presidents sailed aboard SS United States overtime, Harry Truman, Dwight Eisenhower, John Kennedy and Bill Clinton, the last as fresh graduate from Georgetown was on his way to study at Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar in 1968, one year before the retirement of the vessel.

Ever since her retirement from active duty in 1969, the ship has been having a tumultuous life seeking a purpose and a permanent home; she has changed ownership several times since then, with buyers hoping to find commercial uses for her. She was designed as a passenger liner vessel to travel fast and her conversion to a cruiseship or theme vessel or a floating hotel is not absolutely ideal, as she’s too narrow by her beam and her fuel consumption (replacing diesel powered steam turbines) will be high. She has been gutted internally and most of the asbestos has been removed, so she’s ready for her next development stage. There have been proposals for her to be developed as a museum or theme vessel and get relocated to major metropolitan areas, possibly New York, perhaps along the historic aircraft carrier Intrepid or find a place with Vision 2020: New York City Comprehensive Waterfront Plan.

At present, the vessel is owned and controlled by the SS United States Conservancy (http://www.ssusc.org/), an non-for-profit organization, under the leadership of Susan L. Gibbs, the granddaughter of ingenious William Francis Gibbs, the naval architect and marine engineer who designed SS United States (and also notably the vessels that would be known as ‘Liberty Ships’ during WWII.) Through sizeable donations and ongoing fund raising efforts, the Conservancy has kept a close watch over the vessel and her constant need for upkeep and continuous cleaning efforts. However, a couple of recent proposals for the ship’s development have fallen apart, and the running costs of keeping the vessel at her present location is more than $60,000 per month.

We have had the distinct honor to be invited recently by the SS United States Conservancy to board and tour the vessel, to be allowed to get a glimpse through history’s spider-webbed, broken glass of a porthole into another age and way of life. It was a breezy, sunny day in March after a long winter in Philadelphia and the Northeast; just to envision for a few hours the luxury ship built with military grade steel and aluminum superstructure careening effortlessly fast over the ocean, with Marilyn Monroe lingering on a chaise lounge chair on one of the sundecks portside and Salvador Dali pondering on surrealism by his cabin starboard, John Kennedy leaning over a book in the library while there was a stage performance in the theater abaft, it was indeed a unique invitation to have a front row viewing to a maritime and historical miracle, a project of supreme American engineering and soaring ambition, to a ship that links us to the roots of American maritime tradition which regrettably seems to slip further away from us by the day.   While ‘unsinkable’ RMS Titanic got crushed by fate soon in her maiden voyage, SS United States, more than sixty years after she was launched from a navy shipyard, still stands tall, a testament to her shipbuilder’s ambition for building a ship that ‘you cannot catch her, you cannot set her on fire and you cannot sink her’.

‘America’s Flagship’ has done her duty to her country and to her owners and her passengers, glamorous or not; she has served history well. We owe it to her to keep her afloat in glamor and perseverance, to get involved, to volunteer or donate for her maintenance until the right development is found for her. One can find more about the vessel and the Conservancy at http://www.ssusc.org/ and donations are strongly encouraged at http://www.ssusc.org/give-and-join/donate/ or at https://www.savetheunitedstates.org/

The pictures taken during the recent visit are a testament to her magnificent structure and an invitation and challenge to see the ship restored to her past glory; we owe it to her!


 

SS United States_bow_BMK 22 MAR2014

SS ‘United States’ – called ‘America’s Flagship’ (Bow view)

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SS ‘United States’ – called ‘America’s Flagship’ (Bow view, detail)

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SS ‘United States’ – called ‘America’s Flagship’ (Bow view)

SS United States_portside looking from stern to bow_BMK 4 MAR2014

SS ‘United States’ – called ‘America’s Flagship’ (Portside view of the hull, looking forward)

SS United States_outdoor promenade_BMK 19 MAR2014

SS ‘United States’ – called ‘America’s Flagship’ (outdoors promenade)

SS United States_swimming pool_BMK 19 MAR2014

SS ‘United States’ – called ‘America’s Flagship’ (swimming pool with natural sand all around, a first on a ship! Marilyn Monroe swam here!)

SS United States_Where first class cabins used to be_BMK 18 MAR2014

SS ‘United States’ – called ‘America’s Flagship’ (where first class cabins used to be0

SS United States_watertight door_BMK 6 MAR2014

SS ‘United States’ – called ‘America’s Flagship’ (Watertight door – Safety has been priority #1 all over the ship)

SS United States_Elevator_BMK 16 MAR2014

SS ‘United States’ – called ‘America’s Flagship’ (Elevator door – avant guard for the time!)

SS United States_Master staircase_BMK 15 MAR2014

SS ‘United States’ – called ‘America’s Flagship’ (Master staircase – not as grandiose as on RMS Titanic, but definitely practical!)

SS United States_Bar_BMK 14 MAR2014

SS ‘United States’ – called ‘America’s Flagship’ (Bar, situated indoors, aft – “Buy you a drink, Miss?’)

SS United States_indoor promenade_BMK 13 MAR2014

SS ‘United States’ – called ‘America’s Flagship’ (Promenade, indoors)

SS United States_tennis court on poop desk_BMK 12 MAR2014

SS ‘United States’ – called ‘America’s Flagship’ (Tennis courts, located aft, on poop deck)

SS United States_spare propeller_BMK 11 MAR2014

SS ‘United States’ – called ‘America’s Flagship’ (Spare propeller onboard)

SS United States_Funnel_BMK 10 MAR2014

SS ‘United States’ – called ‘America’s Flagship’ (Funnel – Imagine in shining fresh red paint!)

 

SS United States_Funnel & Crow's Nest_BMK 21 MAR2014

SS ‘United States’ – called ‘America’s Flagship’ (Forward funnel and tower with crow’s nest and radar antenna – a novelty of the times)

SS United States_Funnels_BMK 9 MAR2014

SS ‘United States’ – called ‘America’s Flagship’ (Funnels – gracefully angled, delineated a distinctive silhouette on the horizon!)

SS United States_Plaque_BMK 8 MAR2014

SS ‘United States’ – called ‘America’s Flagship’ (Gibbs and Cox., Inc – the ship has been the child of lifelong love for her designer!)

SS United States_SaveTheUnitedStates.org_BMK 7 MAR2014

SS ‘United States’ – called ‘America’s Flagship’ (Please donate! http://www.SaveTheUnitedStates.org)

SS United States_Stern_BMK 5 MAR2014

SS ‘United States’ – called ‘America’s Flagship’ (An impressive stern)

SS United States_Stern_BMK 3 MAR2014

SS ‘United States’ – called ‘America’s Flagship’ (Homeported in New York)

 


© 2013-2014 Basil M Karatzas & Karatzas Marine Advisors & Co.  All Rights Reserved.

IMPORTANT DISCLAIMERS:  Vessel description is provided in good faith and is believed to be correct and accurate but no assurances, warranties or representations are made herewith. Vessel description is provided for entertainment  purposes only. We have no responsibility whatsoever for any errors / omissions in vessel description.

Access to this blog signifies the reader’s irrevocable acceptance of this disclaimer. No part of this blog can be reproduced by any means and under any circumstances, whatsoever, in whole or in part, without proper attribution or the consent of the copyright and trademark holders of this website.Whilst every effort has been made to ensure that information herewithin has been received from sources believed to be reliable and such information is believed to be accurate at the time of publishing, no warranties or assurances whatsoever are made in reference to accuracy or completeness of said information, and no liability whatsoever will be accepted for taking or failing to take any action upon any information contained in any part of this website.  Thank you for the consideration.

 

MUSEUM SHIP SS ‘HELLAS LIBERTY’ (ex- SS ‘Arthur M. Huddell’)

SS HELLAS LIBERTY B_1

Museum Ship SS ‘Hellas Liberty’ – One of the last three remaining original ‘Liberty Ships’ built during the WWII effort in the USA

SS HELLAS LIBERTY B_2

Museum Ship SS ‘Hellas Liberty’ – One of the last three remaining original ‘Liberty Ships’ built during the WWII effort in the USA

SS HELLAS LIBERTY B_3

Museum Ship SS ‘Hellas Liberty’ – One of the last three remaining original ‘Liberty Ships’ built during the WWII effort in the USA

SS HELLAS LIBERTY B_4

Museum Ship SS ‘Hellas Liberty’ – One of the last three remaining original ‘Liberty Ships’ built during the WWII effort in the USA

SS HELLAS LIBERTY B_5

Museum Ship SS ‘Hellas Liberty’ – One of the last three remaining original ‘Liberty Ships’ built during the WWII effort in the USA

SS HELLAS LIBERTY B_6

Museum Ship SS ‘Hellas Liberty’ – One of the last three remaining original ‘Liberty Ships’ built during the WWII effort in the USA

SS HELLAS LIBERTY B_7

Museum Ship SS ‘Hellas Liberty’ – One of the last three remaining original ‘Liberty Ships’ built during the WWII effort in the USA

SS HELLAS LIBERTY B_9

Museum Ship SS ‘Hellas Liberty’ – One of the last three remaining original ‘Liberty Ships’ built during the WWII effort in the USA

SS HELLAS LIBERTY B_8

Museum Ship SS ‘Hellas Liberty’ – One of the last three remaining original ‘Liberty Ships’ built during the WWII effort in the USA

SS HELLAS LIBERTY B_10

Museum Ship SS ‘Hellas Liberty’ – One of the last three remaining original ‘Liberty Ships’ built during the WWII effort in the USA

SS HELLAS LIBERTY B_12

Museum Ship SS ‘Hellas Liberty’ – One of the last three remaining original ‘Liberty Ships’ built during the WWII effort in the USA

SS HELLAS LIBERTY B_11

Museum Ship SS ‘Hellas Liberty’ – One of the last three remaining original ‘Liberty Ships’ built during the WWII effort in the USA


© 2013-2014 Basil M Karatzas & Karatzas Marine Advisors & Co.  All Rights Reserved.

IMPORTANT DISCLAIMER:  Access to this blog signifies the reader’s irrevocable acceptance of this disclaimer. No part of this blog can be reproduced by any means and under any circumstances, whatsoever, in whole or in part, without proper attribution or the consent of the copyright and trademark holders of this website. Whilst every effort has been made to ensure that information here within has been received from sources believed to be reliable and such information is believed to be accurate at the time of publishing, no warranties or assurances whatsoever are made in reference to accuracy or completeness of said information, and no liability whatsoever will be accepted for taking or failing to take any action upon any information contained in any part of this website.  Thank you for the consideration.